Does regular exercise change the brain?
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Yes. It works directly on brain tissue to improve the connections between nerve cells, creates new synapses, grows new neurons and blood vessels, improves cell energy efficiency, and even repairs neural damage. It also helps the brain by improving insulin metabolism and cardiovascular functions. In one well-designed study, a year of moderately intense aerobic exercise reversed age-related decline in the brain by the equivalent of one to two years. That's especially true for seniors, individuals from 55 to 80. This age group is where the best evidence that exercise can slow cognitive deterioration comes from.