Unlike whole-body vibration therapy, the scientific research is pretty clear on cigarettes: Study after study has shown that smoking harms your bones. Worse yet, smoking doesn't attack your bones along just a single avenue, according to the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Smoking reduces the blood supply to bones and the absorption of calcium; the nicotine in cigarettes causes certain cells to make less bone; and smoking affects the breakdown of estrogen, which is important for strong bones in both women and men.
Recent research also suggests that smoking causes a spike in the levels of certain proteins involved with bone resorption. Additionally, smoking is often associated with other risk factors. "Smokers often have other habits that affect bones, such as drinking too much, having poor nutrition, or being underweight," says Dr. Lewiecki.